Sunday, July 10, 2011

Weight Kilogram per Meter of TMT Bars as per ISI standards

Below is the sectional weight kilogram per meter of TMT Bars as per ISI standards


Size Sectional Weight (kg/m)
8MM 0.395 
10MM 0.617 
12MM  0.890 
16MM  1.580 
20MM  2.470 
25MM 3.860  
28MM 4.830 
32MM  6.310 
36MM  7.990 
40MM  9.850 


Steel Brands

1] Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL)

2] Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd (RINL)

3] Tata

4] Essar Steel

5] Rathi Tmt Bars (Rathi TMT)

6] Elegant TMT Bars

7] Rashtriya TMT Bars

8] Prime Gold TMT

9] SEL TMT FE 500 +

10] Capital Ispat Ltd (Angle & Channel)

11] Amba TMT & Structures

12] Rana Angle & Channel

13] K.L Steel (Angle & Channel)

14] Sam Angles

15] Jaibharat TMT & Angles

16] Structure from Raipur

17] Structure/flat from Mandi Gobindgarh

Mix Design for M-40 Concrete

The mix design M-40 grade for Pier (Using Admixture – Fosroc) provided here is for reference purpose only. Actual site conditions vary and thus this should be adjusted as per the location and other factors.

Parameters for mix design M40

Grade Designation = M-40
Type of cement = O.P.C-43 grade
Brand of cement = Vikram ( Grasim )
Admixture = Fosroc ( Conplast SP 430 G8M )
Fine Aggregate = Zone-II
Sp. Gravity Cement = 3.15
Fine Aggregate = 2.61
Coarse Aggregate (20mm) = 2.65
Coarse Aggregate (10mm) = 2.66
Minimum Cement (As per contract) = 400 kg / m3
Maximum water cement ratio (As per contract) = 0.45

Mix Calculation: -

1. Target Mean Strength = 40 + (5 X 1.65) = 48.25 Mpa

2. Selection of water cement ratio:-
Assume water cement ratio = 0.4

3. Calculation of cement content: -
Assume cement content 400 kg / m3
(As per contract Minimum cement content 400 kg / m3)

4. Calculation of water: -
400 X 0.4 = 160 kg Which is less than 186 kg (As per Table No. 4, IS: 10262)
Hence o.k.

5. Calculation for C.A. & F.A.: – As per IS : 10262 , Cl. No. 3.5.1

V = [ W + (C/Sc) + (1/p) . (fa/Sfa) ] x (1/1000)

V = [ W + (C/Sc) + {1/(1-p)} . (ca/Sca) ] x (1/1000)


V = absolute volume of fresh concrete, which is equal to gross volume (m3) minus the volume of entrapped air ,

W = mass of water ( kg ) per m3 of concrete ,

C = mass of cement ( kg ) per m3 of concrete ,

Sc = specific gravity of cement,

(p) = Ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume ,

(fa) , (ca) = total mass of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate (kg) per m3 of
Concrete respectively, and

Sfa , Sca = specific gravities of saturated surface dry fine aggregate and Coarse aggregate respectively.

As per Table No. 3 , IS-10262, for 20mm maximum size entrapped air is 2% .

Assume F.A. by % of volume of total aggregate = 36.5 %

0.98 = [ 160 + ( 400 / 3.15 ) + ( 1 / 0.365 ) ( Fa / 2.61 )] ( 1 /1000 )

=> Fa = 660.2 kg

Say Fa = 660 kg.

0.98 = [ 160 + ( 400 / 3.15 ) + ( 1 / 0.635 ) ( Ca / 2.655 )] ( 1 /1000 )

=> Ca = 1168.37 kg.

Say Ca = 1168 kg.

Considering 20 mm : 10mm = 0.6 : 0.4

20mm = 701 kg .
10mm = 467 kg .

Hence Mix details per m3

Cement = 400 kg
Water = 160 kg
Fine aggregate = 660 kg
Coarse aggregate 20 mm = 701 kg
Coarse aggregate 10 mm = 467 kg
Admixture = 0.6 % by weight of cement = 2.4 kg.
Recron 3S = 900 gm

Water: cement: F.A.: C.A. = 0.4: 1: 1.65: 2.92

Observation: -
A. Mix was cohesive and homogeneous.
B. Slump = 110mm
C. No. of cube casted = 12 Nos.
7 days average compressive strength = 51.26 MPa.
28 days average compressive strength = 62.96 MPa which is greater than 48.25MPa

Hence the mix is accepted.

M-30 Concrete Mix Design


As per IS 10262-2009 & MORT&H


Stipulations for Proportioning

Grade Designation


Type of Cement 

OPC 53 grade confirming to IS-12269-1987 

Maximum Nominal Aggregate Size 

20 mm 

Minimum Cement Content (MORT&H 1700-3 A)

310 kg/m3

Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 


Workability (MORT&H 1700-4) 

50-75 mm (Slump) 

Exposure Condition 


Degree of Supervision 


Type of Aggregate 

Crushed Angular Aggregate 


Maximum Cement Content (MORT&H Cl. 1703.2)

540 kg/m3


Chemical Admixture Type 

Superplasticiser Confirming to IS-9103 


Test Data for Materials

Cement Used 

Coromandal King OPC 53 grade 

Sp. Gravity of Cement 


Sp. Gravity of Water 


Chemical Admixture 

BASF Chemicals Company

Sp. Gravity of 20 mm Aggregate 


Sp. Gravity of 10 mm Aggregate 


Sp. Gravity of Sand 


Water Absorption of 20 mm Aggregate 


Water Absorption of 10 mm Aggregate 



Water Absorption of Sand 



Free (Surface) Moisture of 20 mm Aggregate



Free (Surface) Moisture of 10 mm Aggregate 



Free (Surface) Moisture of Sand 



Sieve Analysis of Individual Coarse Aggregates 

Separate Analysis Done 


Sieve Analysis of Combined Coarse Aggregates

Separate Analysis Done 


Sp. Gravity of Combined Coarse Aggregates 



Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates 

Separate Analysis Done 


Target Strength for Mix Proportioning

Target Mean Strength (MORT&H 1700-5) 


Characteristic Strength @ 28 days



Selection of Water Cement Ratio

Maximum Water Cement Ratio (MORT&H 1700-3 A) 


Adopted Water Cement Ratio 



Selection of Water Content

Maximum Water content (10262-table-2) 

186 Lit. 

Estimated Water content for 50-75 mm Slump

160 Lit. 

Superplasticiser used 

0.5 % by wt. of cement 


Calculation of Cement Content

Water Cement Ratio 


Cement Content (160/0.42) 

380 kg/m3


Which is greater then 310 kg/m3


Proportion of Volume of Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate Content

Vol. of C.A. as per table 3 of IS 10262 


Adopted Vol. of Coarse Aggregate 



Adopted Vol. of Fine Aggregate ( 1-0.62) 



Mix Calculations

Volume of Concrete in m3


Volume of Cement in m3



(Mass of Cement) / (Sp. Gravity of Cement)x1000 


Volume of Water in m3



(Mass of Water) / (Sp. Gravity of Water)x1000 


Volume of Admixture @ 0.5% in m3



(Mass of Admixture)/(Sp. Gravity of Admixture)x1000 


Volume of All in Aggregate in m3



Sr. no. 1 – (Sr. no. 2+3+4) 


Volume of Coarse Aggregate in m3



Sr. no. 5 x 0.62 


Volume of Fine Aggregate in m3



Sr. no. 5 x 0.38 



Mix Proportions for One Cum of Concrete (SSD Condition)

Mass of Cement in kg/m3


Mass of Water in kg/m3


Mass of Fine Aggregate in kg/m3


Mass of Coarse Aggregate in kg/m3



Mass of 20 mm in kg/m3



Mass of 10 mm in kg/m3


Mass of Admixture in kg/m3


Water Cement Ratio 


BIS Codes

BIS CODE : INDIAN STANDARD for Structural Engineering

IS: 800-1984 

Code for practice for general construction  in steel. 

SP6 (1) 

Handbook for structural steel sections. 


Hand book for Cold formed, Light Gauge  steel structures. 


Handbook  for  application  of   plastic theory in design of steel structures. 


Project  &  Construction  Management  for  Large  Industrial Projects. 

IS: 206 -1992 (4th Rev) 

Tee & strap hinges - Specification. 

IS: 459 -1992 (3rd Rev) 

Corrugated & non-corrugated asbestos cement sheets - Specification.

IS: 730 -1978 (2nd Rev) 

Hook  bolts   for  corrugated  sheet roofing - Specification. 

IS: 801 -1975 (1st Rev) 

Code of Practice for use of cold - formed light gauge  steel  structural  members in general building construction.

IS: 802 -1977 (2nd Rev) 

Code of Practice for use of structural steel  in (Part-1) overhead transmission  line towers   -  Loads  and   permissible stresses. 

IS: 804 -1967 (1st Rev) 

Rectangular  pressed  steel  tanks - Specification.

IS: 806 -1968 (1st Rev) 

Code of Practice for  use  of  steel  tubes in general building construction. 

IS: 808 -1989 (3rd Rev) 

Dimension for hot rolled steel beam, channel and angle sections. 

IS: 811 -1987 (2nd Rev) 

Cold formed  light  gauge structural steel section - Specification.

IS:813 -1986 (1st Rev) 

Scheme of symbols for welding. 

IS: 814 -1991 (5th Rev) 

Specification for covered electrodes for  manual metal  arc  welding   of carbon & carbon manganese steel. 

IS: 822 -1970 

Code of procedure for  inspection of welds.

IS: 875 -1987(2nd Rev)

(Part 1)

(Part 2)

(Part 3)

(Part 4)

(Part 5) 

Code of Practice for design loads for buildings & structures.

Dead loads

Imposed loads.

Wind loads.

Snow loads.

Special loads & load combinations. 

IS:1024 -1979 (1st Rev)

Code of Practice for use of welding in bridges and  structures subjected to dynamic loading. 

IS:1038 -1983 (3rd Rev) 

Specification  for  steel  doors, windows & ventilators. 

IS:1081 -1960 

Code of Practice for fixing & glazing  of metal doors, windows and ventilators.

IS:1148 -1982 (3rd Rev) 

Specification  for  hot rolled steel rivet bars (Up to 40 mm diameter). 

IS:1161 -1979 (3rd Rev) 

Specification  for  steel  tubes for structural purposes. 

IS:1182 -1983 (2nd Rev) 

Recommended practice for radiographic examination  of  fusion  welded butt joints in steel plates.

IS:1254 -1991 (3rd Rev) 

Specification - Corrugated aluminium sheet. 

IS:1323 -1982 (2nd Rev) 

Code of Practice for  oxyacetylene welding  for structural work in in mild steel.

IS:1361 -1978 (1st Rev) 

Specification for steel windows  for industrial buildings. 

IS:1363 -1992 (3rd Rev) 

(Parts 2 & 3)  

Hexagon  head  bolts, screw and nuts of product grade C-Screw (M5 to M64) 

IS:1364 -1992 (3rd Rev)

(Part 4)  

Hexagon head bolts, screws and nuts of product grade A and B - Thin nuts (M1.6 to M64)

IS:1395 -1982(3rd Rev) 

Specification for low & medium alloy steel  covered  electrode  for metal arc welding. 

IS:1477 -1971(1st Rev) 

Code of Practice  for painting offerrous  metal in buildings.

(Part 1) 


(Part 2) 


. IS:2062 -1992 (4th Rev) 

Specification for steel for  general structural purposes. 

IS:3443 -1980(1st Rev) 

Specification for crane rail section 

IS:3548 -1988(1st Rev) 

Code of Practice for glazing in buildings.


Part 1 -1985
Part 3 -1984
Part 4 -1984
Part 5 -1983
Part 6 -1983
Part 7 -1985
Part 8 -1985

Method  of  testing   fusion  welded joints and weld metal in steel. 

IS:3757 -1985(2nd Rev) 

Specification   for  high  strength structural bolts.

IS:3964 -1980(1st Rev) 

Specification for light rails. 

IS:4000 -1992 (1st Rev) 

High   strength   bolts   in   steel structures. 

IS:4049 -1988 (2nd Rev) (Part 1) 

Specification  for  formed  ends for tanks and pressure vessels. 

IS:4260 -1986(2nd Rev) 

Recommended practice for  ultrasonic testing  of  butt  welds in ferritic steel. 

IS:4351 -1976(1st Rev) 

Specification for steel door frames. 

IS:5504 -1969 

Specification   for   spiral  welded pipes. 

IS:5872 -1990(2nd Rev) 

Specification  for cold rolled steel



IS:6533 -1989(1st Rev)

(Part 1)

(Part 2) 

Code of Practice for design and construction of steel chimney.

Mechanical aspect

Structural aspect 

IS:6623 -1985(1st Rev) 

Specification  for  high  strength structural nuts. 

IS:6649 -1985(1st Rev)

Specification   for   hardened   and tempered washers for  high  strength structural bolts and nuts. 

IS:7205 -1974 

Safety   code   for    erection   of structural steelwork. 

. IS:7215 -1974 

Tolerances for fabrication of  steel structures. 

IS:8500 -1991(1st Rev)

Specification   for  micro-alloyed structural steel. 

IS:8629 -1977 Part (1 & 3)  

Code of Practice  for  protection of  iron  and steel  structures  from  atmospheric corrosion. 

IS:9172 -1979 

Recommended  design  practice for corrosion   prevention   of    steel structures.

IS:9178 -1979

(Part 1)

(Part 2) 

Criteria   for  design   of  steel bins for storage of bulk materials.

General requirements  & assessment of loads.

Design criteria. 

IS:9417 -1989 (1st rev) 

Welding    of   cold  rolled   steel bars for   reinforcement   concrete construction.


Guidelines for development of vendor rating systems. 


Tolerances   for  erection  of steel structures. 

Free Engineering Services by IIT Alumni  Ranchi Chapter 


Read more:

Sunday, July 3, 2011


(A) Cement:

  1. Consistency Test: -

    Procedure: - By using Vicat apparatus (IS: 5513-1976) prepare a neat cement paste by gauging the cement with 0.85 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency. Potable or distilled water shall be used in preparing the paste. The paste shall be gauged in the manner & under the conditions prescribed in IS: 4031 (Part 4)-1988. Start a stopwatch at the instant when the water is added to the cement. Fill the Vicat mould 'E' with cement paste gauged as above, the mould resting on a non-porous plate. Fill the mould completely & smooth off the surface of the paste making it level with the top of the mould. The cement block thus prepared in the mould is the test block.

            Immediately after moulding, place the test block in the moist closet or moist room & allow it to remain there except when determinations of time of setting are being made.


To obtained required consistency per 50 kg cement

Shall not be more than 34 liter for 1:3:6 mix

Shall not be more than 30 liter for 1:2:4 mix

Shall not be more than 27 liter for 1:1½:3 mix


NOTE 1 – Clean appliances shall be used for gauging.

NOTE 2 – All the appliances shall be free from vibration during the test.

NOTE 3 – Care shall be taken to keep the needle straight.


2) Setting Time -

        Determination of I.S.T.: - Place the test block confined in the mould & resting on the non-porous plate, under the rod bearing the needle (C); lower the needle gently until it come in contact with the surface of the test block & quickly release, allowing it to penetrate into the test block. In the beginning, the needle will completely pierce the test block. Repeat the procedure until the needle when brought in contact with the test block & released as described above, fails to pierce the block beyond 5.0 ± 0.5 mm measured from the bottom of the mould. The period elapsing between the time when water is added to the cement & the time at which the needle fails to pierce the test block to a point

5.0 ± 0.5 mm measured from the bottom of the mould shall be the I.S.T.




        Determination of F.S.T.: - Replace the needle (C) of the Vicat apparatus by the needle with annular attachment (F). The cement shall be considered as finally set when, upon applying the needle gently to the surface of the test block, the needles makes an impression thereon, while the attachment fails to do so shall be the final setting time. In the event of a scum forming on the surface of the test block, use the underside of the block for the determination.


(B) Aggregates: -


  1. Aggregate Impact Value

    Apparatus – The apparatus shall be consists of the following.


(a) An Impact Testing Machine complying with the following:

    (1) Total Wt. not more than 60 kg nor less than 45 kg.

(2) The machine shall have a metal base weighing between 22 & 30 kg with a plane lower surface of not less than 30 cm diameter, & shall be supported on a level & plane concrete or stone block or floor at least 45 cm thick. The machine shall be prevented from rocking either by fixing it to the block or floor or by supporting it on a level & plane metal plate cast into the surface of the block or floor.

(3) A cylindrical steel cup of internal dimensions:

Diameter: 102 mm; Depth: 50 mm.

And not less than 6.3 mm thick with it's inner surface case-hardened, that can be rigidly fastened at the centre of the base & easily removed for emptying.

(4) A metal tub or hammer weighing 13.5 to 14.0 kg, the lower end of which shall be cylindrical in shape, 100 mm in diameter & 50 mm long, with 2 mm chamfer at the lower edge, & case-hardened. The hammer shall slide freely vertical guides so arranged that the lower (Cylindrical) part of the hammer is above & concentric with the cup.

(5) Means for raising the hammer & allowing it to fall freely between the vertical guides from a height of 380 ± 5.0 mm on to the test sample in the cup, & means for adjusting the height of fall within 5 mm.

(6) Means for supporting the hammer whilst fastening or removing the cup.

(b) Sieves – The IS Sieves of sizes 12.5, 10 & 2.36 mm.

(c) Measure – A cylindrical metal measure, tarred to the nearest gram, of sufficient rigidity to retain its form under rough usage, & of the following internal dimensions:

Diameter: 75 mm; Depth: 50 mm.

(d) Tamping Rod – A straight metal Tamping rod of circular cross section

10 mm in diameter & 230 mm long, rounded at one end.

(e) Balance – A balance of capacity not less than 500 gm, readable & accurate to 0.1 gm.

(f) Oven – A well-ventilated oven, thermostatically controlled to maintain a temperature of 100°C to 110°C


        Preparation of Test sample –

  • The test sample shall consists of aggregate the whole of which passes a 12.5 mm IS Sieve and is retained on a 10 mm IS Sieve. The aggregate comprising the test sample shall be dried in an oven for a period of

4 hrs. at a temperature of 100°C to 110°C and cooled.

  • The measure shall be filled bout 1/3rd full with the aggregate & tamped with 45 strokes of the rounded end of the tamping rod. A further similar quantity of aggregate shall be added & a further tamping of 25 strokes given. The measure shall finally be filled to overflowing, tamped 25 times & the surplus aggregate struck off, using the tamping rod as a straight edge. The net wt. of aggregate in measure shall determined to the nearest gram (Wt. A) & this wt. of aggregate shall be used for the duplicate test on the same material.


Test Procedure –

  1. The impact machine shall rest without wedging or packing upon the level plate, block or floor, so that it is rigid & the hammer guide columns are vertical.
  2. The cup shall be fixed firmly in position on the machine & the whole of the test sample placed in it & compacted by a single tamping of 25 strokes of the tamping rod.
  3. The hammer shall be raised until its lower face is 380 mm above the upper surface of the aggregate in the cup, and allowed fall freely on to the aggregate. The test sample shall be subjected to a total of 15 such blows each being delivered at an interval of not less than 1 sec.
  4. The crushed aggregate shall then be removed from the cup & the whole of it sieved on the 2.36 mm IS sieve until no further significant amount passes in one minute. The fraction passing the sieve shall be weighed to an accuracy of 0.1 gm (Wt. B). The fraction retained on the sieve shall also be weighed (Wt. C) and, if the total wt. (B+C) is less than the initial weight (Wt. A) by more than 1 gm. The result shall be discarded & a fresh test made. Two tests shall be made.



Calculation: -

The ratio of the wt. of fines formed to the total sample wt. in each test shall be expressed as a percentage (%), The result being recorded to the first decimal place:


        Aggregate Impact Value = (B/A) X 100

Where; B = wt. of fraction passing 2.36 mm IS Sieve, and

     A = wt. of oven dried sample.

2) Aggregate Abrasion Value – (Using Los Angeles machine)


        Apparatus –

(a) Los Angeles machine: - The Los Angeles abrasion testing machine, confirming in all its essential characteristics to the design shall be used. The machine shall consists of a hollow steel cylinder, closed at both ends having an inside diameter of 700 mm and an inside length of 500 mm. The cylinder shall be mourned on stub shaft attached to the ends of cylinders but not entering it & shall be mounted in such a manner that it may be rotated about its axis in a horizontal position. An opening in the cylinder shall be closed dust tight with a removable cover bolted in place. The cover shall be so designed as to maintain the cylindrical contour of the interior surface unless the shelf is so located that the charge will not fall on the cover or come in the contact with it during the test. A removable steel shelf, projecting radially 88 mm into the cylinder & extending its full length shall be mounted along one element of the interior surface of the cylinder. The shelf shall be of such thickness & so mounted by bolts or other approved means as to be firm & rigid. The position of the shelf shall be such that the distance from the shelf to the opening, measured along the circumference of the cylinder in the direction of rotation, shall be not less than 1250 mm.


    The abrasive charge, depending upon the grading of the test sample a described below:


No. of spheres 

Wt. of charge (gm) 



5000 ± 25



4584 ± 25 



3330 ± 20 



2500 ± 15 



5000 ± 25 



5000 ± 25 



5000 ± 25 


(b) Test Sample – The test sample shall consists of clean aggregate which has been dried in an oven at 105 to 110°C to substantially constant wt. and shall conform to one of the grading shown in table below. The grading or gradings used shall be those most nearly representing the aggregate furnished for the work.

NOTE – It is recognized that different specification limits may be required for gradings E, F & G than for A, B, C & D. It is urged that investigations be conducted to determine the relationship, if any, which exist between result for these coarse gradings using the

10,000 gm sample & the finer ones using the 5000 gm sample.



Sieve Size

(Square Hole)

Weight in gm of Test Sample for grade



Retained on




































































































* - Tolerance of ±2 percent permitted.


Procedure –

  1. The test sample & the abrasive charge shall be placed in the Los Angeles Abrasion testing machine & the machine rotated at a speed of 20 to 33 rev/min. For gradings A, B, C & D, the machine shall be rotated for 500 revolutions; for gradings E, F & G, it shall be rotated for 1000 revolutions. The machine shall be so driven & so counter balanced as to maintain a substantially uniform peripheral speed. If an angle is used as the shelf, the machine shall be rotated in such a direction that the charge is caught on the outside surface of the angle. At the completion of the test, the material shall be discharged from the machine & a preliminary separation of the sample made on a sieve coarser than the 1.7 mm IS Sieve. The finer portion shall then be sieved on a 1.7 mm IS Sieve in the manner described in 2.3 Part I of this standard.
  2. The material coarser than the 1.7 mm IS Sieve shall be washed dried in an oven at 105°C to 110°C to a substantially constant weight & accurately weighed to the nearest gram.

NOTE – Attention is called to the fact that valuable information concerning the uniformity of the sample under test may be obtained by determining the loss after 100 revolutions. When this determination is made, care should be taken to avoid loss of any part of the sample; the entire sample; including the dust of abrasion, shall be returned to the testing machine for the completion of the test.


Reporting of result –

The difference between the original weight & the final weight of the test sample shall be expressed as a percentage of the original weight of the test sample. This value shall be reported as the percentage of wear.


(C) Natural Sand: -


IS: 2386 (Part – I) – 1963.

Object –

This method of test deals with the procedure for determining the total quantity of material finer than 75 micron IS Sieve in aggregates by washing.


NOTE – Clay particles that are disposed by wash water as well as water soluble materials will be removed from the aggregate during the test.


Apparatus –

(a) Balance – The balance or scale shall be of sufficient capacity & sensitivity and shall have an accuracy of 0.1% of the weight of the test sample.

(b) Sieve – A nest of two sieves, the lower being 75 micron IS Sieve and the upper approximately 1.18 mm IS Sieve [see IS : 460-1962 Specification for test Sieves (Revised)].

(c) Container – A pan or vessel of size sufficient to contain the sample covered with water & to permit of vigorous agitation without inadvertent loss of any part of the sample or water.

(d) Oven – An oven of sufficient size capable of maintaining an uniform temperature of 110°C ± 5°C.

Sample –

The test sample shall be selected from material which has been thoroughly mixed & which contains sufficient moisture to prevent segregation. A representative sample, sufficient to sample, sufficient to yield not less than the appropriate weight of dried material, as shown below, shall be selected:

Maximum Nominal size of aggregate

In (mm)

Approximate minimum weight of sample in (gm) 







40 or over 



Procedure –

(1) The test sample shall be dried to constant weight at a temperature of 110°C ± 5°C & weighed to the nearest 0.1%.

(2) The test sample after being dried & weighed shall be placed in the container & sufficient water added to cover it. The contents of the container shall be agitated vigorously.

(3) The agitation shall be sufficiently vigorous to result in the complete separation from the coarse particles of all particles finer than 75 micron & bring the fine material into suspension.

    Care should be taken to avoid, as much as possible, the decantation of the coarse particles of the sample. The operation shall be repeated until the wash water is clear.

(4) The wash water containing the suspended & dissolve solids shall be immediately poured over the nested sieves arranged with the coarser sieve on the top.

(5) All material retained on the nested sieves shall be returned to the wash sample. The wash aggregate shall dried to constant weight at a temperature not exceeding 110°C and weighed to the nearest 0.1%.


Calculation –

The amount of material passing the 75 micron IS Sieve shall be calculated as follows:


A = [(B-C) / B] X 100


    A = percentage of material finer than 75 micron.

    B = original dry weight, and

    C = dry weight after washing.

% Passing w.e.f. IS Sieve (Grading zones)



Grading Zones 

Zone I 

Zone II 

Zone III 

Zone IV 

10 mm





4.75 mm





2.36 mm





1.18 mm










300 µ





150 µ





NOTE – Grade - IV shall not be used in RCC.


(D) Concrete -

Workability of concrete (Slump Test)


Placing conditions 

Degree of Workability  

Slump in (mm) 

Blinding concrete;

Shallow sections;

Pavement using pavers


Very low


IS 1199

Mass concrete;

Lightly reinforced sections in slabs, beams, walls, columns;


Hand placed pavements; Canal lining;

Strip footings








25 – 75

Heavily reinforced sections in slabs, beams, walls, columns;

Slip form work;

Pumped concrete




50 – 100


75 – 100

Trench fill;

In situ piling

Tremie concrete



Very high

100 – 150


IS 9103






Slump in (mm) 

With vibrator 

Without vibrator 

Plain Cement Concrete

Mass concrete in foundation, footings, retaining walls & pavements


Thin section of flooring less than 75 mm thick


10 – 25




25 – 40


50 – 75




75 – 100

Reinforced Cement Concrete

Mass concrete in RCC foundations, footings,

retaining walls


Beams, slabs, & columns

Simply reinforced


Thin RCC section or section with congested steel


10 – 25




25 – 40



40 – 50






100 – 125



125 – 150


(E) Bricks: -









First Class 

Sound, Well Burnt, Rectangular 

Clean, Smooth, no cracks 

Very Hard 

Face – worked structures 

Second class 

Well burnt but with irregular shape

Spots on surface 


Ordinary structure 

Third class 

Under Burnt 

Rough & distorted edges  

Slightly soft 

Buildings not subjected to heavy rains 

Fourth class 

Over Burnt 


Very Hard 

Concrete for foundations 




Compressive strength of Bricks: -

        The compressive strength of Brick is measure of its ability to withstand compressive strength.

        The brick is placed between thin plywood sheets & inserted between the plates of the testing machine. The upper plate is screwed by hand wheel provided at the top of the machine. The load is applied beneath the plate by pumping oil to a hydraulic ram. The amount of pressure is read on the dial of the machine.

        The compressive strength of engineering bricks, building bricks & good clay bricks are 7000 to 10,000; 2000 to 4000; 4000 lbs. per sq. ft.


Water absorption test

        It is the measure of the quantity of water absorbed by a brick when immersed in water.

        The brick is weighed in room temperature when completely dry. Let the weight be 'W1'. Next the brick is kept immersed in water for 24 hrs. again at room temperature & then weighed. Let the weight be 'W2'. After this, the brick is boiled in water for 5 hrs. & cooled in water overnight & weighed. Let the weight be 'W3'.

        Saturation coefficient is given by:


(W2 – W1)

(W3 – W1)

Water absorption, percent by weight is given by


(W2 – W1) X 100



Efflorescence Test for Bricks:

        The end of the specimen is immersed in water contained in a dish up to a depth of 2.5 cm & allowed to remain in this condition. Part of water is absorbed by the brick & the remaining is evaporated. The brick is taken out & when it appears dry, the same procedure is repeated. After second evaporation the brick is examined for efflorescence & the conclusions are drawn as follows:

(a) No efflorescence in absence of any visible deposit.

(b) Slight efflorescence, moderate efflorescence, heavy efflorescence are indicated by deposit cover 10%, 25% & 50% of the covered area of the brick surface, respectively.



CPVC – Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride.

    It is a thermoplastic pipe & fitting material made of compounds.

CPVC products are specifically used for potable water distribution & corrosive fluid handling industry etc. It is a very cost-effective system.


MICROSILICA – It is found from natural deposit in New Zealand. It is a highly reactive pozzolan. Like silica fume, it is very fine amorphous product.

        When MICROSILICA is added with Portland cement, it gives better performance such that it provides very low chloride iron diffusion & it gives better performance such that it provides very low chloride iron diffusion & it increases the compressive strength.